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The Catalog Of Correctable Omnipresent Human Flaws
composed by Edward Smith
first version published June 2005
date of the last update: March 2007

This reference may be copied and distributed freely.

PART 1: Corrections, Enhancements, Random Modifications,
And Impairments

All human bodies have numerous flaws which can be eliminated
by geneticly modifying the zygote. Those flaws exist because
their elimination was and is not necessary for the survival of the
human species. However, their elimination would greatly
increase the efficiency of our actions, and thus both our physical
prosperity and our quality of life.

A distinction must be made between corrections and
enhancements. Corrections are removals of negatives whereas
enhancements are additions of positives. The line between a
correction and an enhancement is not entirely defined, but most
modifications clearly fall on one side or the other.

A correction constitutes the replacement of an important trait
that had evolved away due to lack of necessity, or, more often,
the correction of a trait that had evolved wrongly due to
evolutionary expedience, except when the correction of such a
trait satisfies the criteria for being an enhancement. An
enhancement constitutes any augmentation of ones abilities that
are characterized as being competitive, other than the removal
of specific weaknesses, or any elaborate or unnatural addition.
Many examples of enhancements are: 1. enhancements, beyond
the removal of specific weaknesses, of muscle strength, muscle
disinhibition, muscle endurance, cardiovascular endurance,
physical skills, sensory breadth, sensory sensitivity, intelligence,
mental skills, appearance, speed of development, or ability to
feel pleasure, 2. the ability to extract energy from sunlight,
hydrocarbons, or other sources that are unnatural for animals,
3. chameleon-like color-changing ability or other camouflage,
4. echolocation ability (which is mostly applicable in the dark),
5. built-in phosphorescent light(s), 6. built-in fire lighter(s) (most
likely phosphoric and sulfuric), 7. functioning wings, claws, gills,
serpentine arms, cold-bloodedness, or any other useful
complex animal-like traits, 8. built-in weapons, 9. built-in armor
beyond the removal of any specific weaknesses. Obviously,
some of such enhancements would not even be practical,
especially since artificial non-biological objects can serve many
of those functions, though such artificial non-biological objects
are often expensive and in any case they depend upon a
technological industrial infrastructure and access to that

Corrections and enhancements are both practical modifications.
It is notable that there are also possible modifications that are
not practical. Such modifications may be motivated by novelty,
and are likely to largely consist of alterations that mainly effect
appearance. Such modifications may be called 'random
modifications'. For such modifications, their regulation or lack
thereof is, for the most part, beyond the scope of this reference.

Also possible are modifications that serve to deliberately impair a
person. Such modifications may be called 'impairments'. There is
little motive for making such modifications. The only reason that
a person would make such modifications is to create an enemy
with inferior power, that oneself could have power over.

PART 2: Regulation Of Corrections And Enhancements

When modifying the human genome, it is important to first focus
on corrections rather than enhancements, the reason being that
corrections are limited in their scope (there are most likely only
40-70 possible corrections) and mostly benefit an individual by
themself, whereas enhancements are virtually unlimited in their
scope, are mostly beneficial to an individual in competition with
others, and/or are prone to abuse. Pursuing the latter traits may
thus touch off a rash of socially mutually-destructive genetic
competition if it is not clear that such enhancements must only
be made with the most rightful and socially responsible of
intentions, as characterized by the geneticly-determined
character of the enhanced beings, such that they have a fine,
clear, rightness-seeking abstract focus (caused by the H1, M1,
and M3 receptors in unmodified humans), which works in
opposition to both crude blind wrongness-seeking focus
(caused by the 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors in
unmodified humans) and ethically indifferent greed. Luckily
though, if a person is rational enough to support transhumanism,
then they are more likely to be rational enough to realize that

The various possible human modifications fall on a spectrum
between being a correction and being an enhancement (which
may be called the correction-enhancement spectrum), with
most possible modifications clearly falling on one side or the
other. The further a trait falls toward the enhancement end of the
spectrum, the more dangerous it is, and thus the more rightful it's
bearer's temperament must be. Likewise, impairment
modifications must never be made to humans of rightful
temperament. All corrections except for the creation of rightful
intent have at least a miniscule capacity for abuse, and some
have more capacity for abuse than others. Likewise, some
enhancements have more capacity for abuse than others. In
addition to the type of modification, some modifications have a
particular magnitude, such that a modification of the same type
but a higher magnitude is more abusable. Some modifications
have both a correction effect and an enhancement effect, such
that the 2 effects must be weighed against eachother, and for
such modifications, they should be considered corrections only
when they are made to a low degree; that is particularly true of
growth rate and regeneration. The elimination of death by aging is
also borderline between a correction and an enhancement,
whereas the elimination of the long-term deterioration by aging is
clearly a correction. It is therefore important to create a scale that
classifies modifications based upon their degree of abusability.
The creation of rightful intent does not belong on the scale
because it is the modification that prevents abuse.

Among the flaw corrections, the ones that have the least
abusability are those of hygeine and eliminating excess growth
and secretion. Such corrections, which can be classified as
'minimum abusability', and which are described later in this
reference, include: 'epidermal skin cell division, mouth cell
division, and sebum', 'hair shedding and pubic hair length', 'hair
and nail growth', 'anus hairs', 'saliva secretion', 'nail grain', 'palm
and sole water adhesion', 'fecal indole and skatole', 'sinus
access', and 'intestinal gas management'. Correcting such flaws
should therefore be of higher priority. Some flaw corrections that
have more abusability, and which can be classified as 'low
abusability' are those of autonomy, mobility, durability,
regeneration, and growth speed.

There are also different categories of modifications for both
correction and enhancement modifications, which can serve to
classify the modifications when making lists. Those categories
are: 1. biochemical, 2. gross physical, and 3. neurological. A
modification can fall under multiple categories to some extent,
especially if it is complex, but such traits should be classified
into the categories that they best fall under. Those categories
may also have subcategories where appropriate, such as
'growth', 'autonomy', 'mobility', 'durability', etcetera, though not
all modifications may fall into one of the subcategories. Some
corrections apply only to one gender.

PART 3: Species Names

Being as highly modified humans that can reproduce certainly
constitute a new taxonomic class, there should be specific
taxonomic names to distinguish significantly-modified humans
from unmodified or minimally-modified humans, and to
distinguish humans that have only been modified by significant
corrections from those that have been modified by significant
enhancements (with or without significant corrections also).
Taxonomic names, by custom, are latin, meaning that latin terms
should be used to describe the 3 human types. The most
appropriate latin taxonomic names for humans that are not
significantly-modified, significantly-corrected only, and
significantly-enhanced, respectively, are 'rudis', 'correctus', and
'altus', which mean in latin, respectively: 'rough, raw, or crude',
'corrected', and 'grown or improved'. As for the taxonomic level
of the names, humans that have been modified with significant
corrections have not gone substantially beyond natural human
form or natural human competitive capacity, nor do they have
any traits that primarily serve such functions, nor do they have a
virtually unlimited number of possible modifications, whereas
humans that have been modified with significant enhancements
do have those traits. It is therefore most appropriate for 'rudis'
and 'correctus' to distinguish between 2 homo sapien
subspecies, and for 'altus' to refer to a different species.

PART 4: Correctable Omnipresent Human Flaws

The reference below describes many of, and most likely the vast
majority of, geneticly-correctable omnipresent evolutionary
flaws of unmodified humans (descriptions begin with "In
unmodified humans,"), their corresponding corrected state
(descriptions begin with "In the corrected state," and use the
verb "will"), and any other relevant basic information. Closely
related flaws are described as a single flaw.

(If you don't want to read all of these details, skip to
the application section.)

The categories and subcategories of the flaw corrections are as

   excess growth and secretion
   general growth
   not within a subcategory
gross physical
   non-protective mobility
   protective mobility
   internal accessibility
   elimination of erratic neural activity
   elimination of degradation

The complete flaw correction descriptions are as follows:


subcategory: excess growth and secretion

1. epidermal skin cell division, mouth cell division, and sebum:
In unmodified humans, skin cells of the epidermis, which are
called keratinocytes, like all human cells except for neurons,
constantly divide, and the older keratinocytes are constantly
pushed toward the surface and die as the younger keratinocytes
at the base of the epidermis replicate. On the skin surface, the
dead keratinocytes are either consumed by microbes (mostly
bacteria) directly on the skin, or they flake off as dust. In the
former case, moderately-toxic and foul-smelling volatile
metabolites are produced. In the latter case, dust fills the air and
threatens microbial infections in the mucous membranes of the
respiratory tract and reduces the oxygen supply to the blood,
which in turn raises blood pressure. Dead keratinocytes
constitute approximately 80 percent of indoor dust. However,
some dead keratinocytes are specialized such that they do not
decompose, but serve the useful function of comprising nails and
the outer layer of each hair, called the cuticle. Cells that
constitute the sebaceous glands divide, fill with sebum oil and
die, releasing the sebum oil, which is excreted.
Dihydrotestosterone receptors in the sebaceous glands increase
the growth and replication of sebum cells (and thus cause
increased sebum secretion), which, among the usual effects of
sebum, also causes itching. Bacteria convert the sebum into the
moderately-toxic volatile chemical propionic acid, which smells
like sour milk. The face, ears, and scalp produce a particularly
high level of sebum. However, a small amount of sebum may be
beneficial to the skin, but that amount is much lower than that
which is produced by the face, ears, scalp, and
dihydrotestosterone receptors. Many sebum glands on the face,
unlike the other sebum glands, are constructed very poorly with
narrow openings and large internal sebum stores, such that they
are prone to clogging and causing acne. The only way to
eliminate most of the dust and toxic chemicals is to constantly
wash them off with soap and water, and to do the same to the
clothes that one wears (which also requires keeping multiple sets
of clothing), which people do, and in so doing consume an
average of over an hour of time and a great deal of energy per
day. Also, the cells of the lining of the mouth, and especially the
cells of the tongue, constantly divide and are consumed by
microbes producing the same volatile chemicals as the
decomposed keratinocytes. Such chemicals constitute halitosis,
aka 'bad breath'. In the corrected state, keratinocytes will not
continually reproduce and die except in the case of their useful
functions in hair and nails, sebum production will be no higher in
particular regions of the body, dihydrotestosterone receptors
will not exist on sebaceous glands, poorly-constructed
acne-prone sebaceous glands will not exist, and cells of the
tongue and other parts of the interior of the mouth will not
continually reproduce and die. When the stratum corneum (the
outermost layer of the epidermis that consists of keratin-rich
keratinocytes) is worn down or damaged, the keratinocytes
immediately below the damage will quickly reproduce to repair
the damage.

2. hair shedding and pubic hair length:
In unmodified humans, hairs continually grow for a
biologically-determined period of time, fall out, then immediately
continue to grow again. As a result, a large number of hairs are
shed. That is only slightly true of the hairs of the top of head and
a full beard though, as such hairs grow continuously and shed
rarely ever or never. With the exceptions of the hair of the top
of heads and full beards, the environment is being constantly
contaminated with shed hairs, which typically harbor bacteria as
well. Also, shed eyelashes and eyebrows often fall into the eye
and cause damage and resulting pain. Beard hairs are the
fastest-growing hairs on the body, and trimming, shaving, or
plucking the beard hairs is time-consuming. Pubic hairs of the
armpit, genital region, and chest are impractically long and are
prone to contamination. In the corrected state, hairs, with the
possible exception of the hairs of the top of the head, will
continue to grow until they are at full length, as gauged by the
width of the hair at the base, at which point they will not shed.
Plucked hairs will regrow. Hairs of the beard (when applicable),
armpit, genital region, and chest (when applicable), will be short
hairs of no longer than 3/8ths of an inch (about 9 millimeters),
and they will be exclusively soft hairs like the hairs of most of the
body, as opposed to thick bristles.

3. hair and nail growth:
In unmodified humans, scalp hair, beard hair, finger nails, and
toe nails grow constantly and at a slow rate. Because of that,
they often grow when growth is not desired, and they often
grow too slow when growth is desired, and they must be often
cut when they grow past their desired length. The different hairs
of an area do not grow all at the same time, but at different
times, such that some hairs temporarily grow while others
temporarily do not. The subject of the hair of most of the body
is already covered by the modification regarding hair shedding.
In the corrected state, there will be related efferent and afferent
nerves in the scalp, face, finger tips, and toe tips that allow the
motor cortex of the cerebrum to directly start or halt the growth,
respectively, of the scalp hair, beard hair, finger nails, and toe
nails. The afferent nerves will produce a feedback sensation
when a shift in mode has occurred, such that the specific
sensation indicates the specific mode, and the frontal lobe may
probe any of those regions at any time to sense what mode they
are in. When hair growth is switched on, all hairs will grow at
any given time, such that hair growth will be much faster than in
unmodified humans.

4. anus hairs:
In unmodified humans, there is a large number of hairs that
surround the anus, and those hairs are of similar length to the
pubic hair of the armpits or genitals. As a result, after humans
defecate, feces is caught in the hairs unless it is thoroughly
washed out, such that it increases the amount of volatile
moderately toxic chemicals in the air, and increases the spread
of disease-causing intestinal bacteria. In the corrected state,
there will be no hairs that grow on the skin within 1 inch (32
millimeters) of the anus.

5. saliva secretion:
In unmodified humans, there are 3 major sets of glands of the
slime called saliva, those being the sublingual gland, the
submaxillary gland, and the parotid gland. There are 2
components of saliva, which are the bubbly watery substance
serous, which contains digestive enzymes, especially amylase,
and the thick bubble-free substance mucus, which is a solution
of the glycoprotein mucin. The sublingual glands produce mostly
mucus, whereas the submaxillary and parotid glands produce
mostly serous. Humans constantly produce and swallow saliva.
Saliva serves the purpose of washing away the substances in
the mouth that microbes feed and reproduce upon. Microbes in
the mouth feed and reproduce on 2 substances, which are
pieces of food and dead cells of the interior of the mouth. Due
to the other genetic modification of preventing the continual
division and death of cells of the interior of the mouth, the latter
substance will no longer be a problem. Plain water is sufficient
to clean pieces of food from the mouth. In the corrected state,
the saliva glands will have the ability to secrete pure water in
addition to serous and mucus. The degree of secretion of each
of the 3 different types of saliva will be directly controlled by the
frontal cortex (the thinking part of the brain).

subcategory: general growth

6. growth rate:
In unmodified humans, growth is extremely slow, such that,
after conception, completing the vast majority of one's growth
consumes approximately 19 years (this includes the 9 months of
gestation), and completing the myelination and development of
the prefrontal cortex and completing the development of the
musculature consumes at least 5 more years. That is over one
quarter of the average lifespan of an unmodified human, and
over one third of the non-senescent lifespan. In the corrected
state, the amount of time designated for growth will be drasticly
lower than that of unmodified humans. Obviously, this
modification can be used for rapid reproduction, an abusable
ability, so to balance the advantages with the dangers, the
correction will only constitute a moderate reduction in growth
time, cutting total growth time by about 2/3rds and cutting
gestation time by about 1/3. Gestation growth time, and
especially that of early gestation, probably can not be reduced
as much as post-birth growth time, the reason being that the
majority of developmental organization, which may be delicate,
occurs during gestation, and gestation time is already very short
relative to post-birth growth time.

7. scarring:
In unmodified humans, when the flesh is damaged, it repairs
itself but does so crudely and poorly, leaving a scar. The tissue
of a scar is more breakable and less elastic than the original
tissue. That is in part due to the collagen fibers of the dermis of
scars being straight, tight, and brittle, as opposed to the original
tissue, in which they are more winding and elastic. In the
corrected state, scars will heal completely, such that their tissue
is indistinguishable from the original flesh that they replaced.
The complete healing of scars is a type of regeneration. Unlike
other types of regeneration, the complete healing of scars is
biologically relatively simple, and scars are more common than
other types of permanent physical damage.

8. regeneration:
In unmodified humans, when a body part is cut off or destroyed,
it does not regrow, with few exceptions, such as the liver and
the finger tips. In the corrected state, any amputated or
destroyed body part will regenerate completely, and without
being inferior to the original part. Amphibians can regrow
amputated parts, so the ability to regenerate is not only possible,
but it is natural in some animals. Regrowing lost parts would of
course require embryo-like action. It may be that embryological
development only works because the cells thereof are relatively
unspecialized, such that the genetic modifications must allow the
developmental genes to direct the development of specialized
cells. Regeneration, like accelerated growth, has an abusable
enhancement effect as well as it's correction effect. Therefore,
the damage must regenerate slowly, so as to eliminate much of
the potential for abuse.

9. age-induced degradation and death:
In unmodified humans, all cells except for neurons (which
depend upon glial cells to function) constantly divide, which
results in one of the two daughter cells having a shortened
DNA code due to the copying process, and the other cell
being programmed to shortly die. Repeating non-coding genetic
sequences called telomeres are at the ends of the entire genetic
code of each chromosome, such that DNA replication damages
the telomeres before it damages coding DNA, meaning that the
telomeres protect the DNA. Over time, the telomeres are used
up and coding DNA is damaged, resulting in age-related
degradation and eventually death. In germ cells (sperm and
eggs), the telomeres are restored by the telomerase-TERT
(TERT is an abbreviation for telomere reverse transcriptase)
protein complex. Progressive gene destruction via cell
replication is not the only cause of age-related degradation.
There is also the fact that the brain becomes saturated with
memories and pieces of learned information (both of which
consist of neuron-to-neuron connections) over time, the
majority of which are probably useless or nearly-useless for
one's current or future situations, and those memories are never
erased completely. There is also the fact that microscopic
cracks in the teeth that accumulate with time create deposits of
enamel (pure hydroxyapatite crystal, which is hard but brittle)
within the dentin (collagen fibers saturated with hydroxyapatite,
which is softer but not brittle), which causes the teeth to
become more brittle. That may be called 'tooth scarring', and it
is an issue of both aging and regeneration, and there may also
be other forms of cumulative scarring that cause elements of
aging. There may also be parts of the body that do not cease
growing after their appropriate growth is complete, but rather
continue to grow at a very slow rate, such that they become
enlarged with age. The ears may be one of such parts. Continual
growth may also be the cause of wrinkles, due to the skin
continuing to grow. Automatic age-induced death serves a
useful evolutionary purpose, though age-induced degeneration
doesn't, except insofar as it is conducive to death. Automatic
age-induced death serves the evolutionary purpose of
destroying old genetic combinations so as to decrease the
consumption of resources which can be consumed by newer
genetic combinations, which are typically better evolved. That is
usually beneficial to the group, but some older individuals have
better genes than the average young person, such that some
high-quality older genomes are wasted, and some younger
individuals have worse genes than the average old person, such
that some low-quality younger genomes are wastefully
supported. There is also the fact that growing a new human to
replace a dead or senescent one consumes a vast amount of
growth time, food, money, and time and energy for education
and learning to talk. Death, by the way, is not a form of
conscious harm as suffering is. Only memory creates the illusion
of a single chronicly-coherent self. Due to the fact that a
person's sensations of the past and future moments are not the
same as those of the present moment, and the fact that
pharmaceuticals can alter a person's fundamental intent (which
consists of fundamental abstract perceptions), the conscious self
exists in the moment and dies with the passing of every moment.
Death is the loss of the physical body, the information stored
within the brain, and the neurological traits that create conscious
selves of a particular fundamental intent. In the corrected state,
no forms of age-induced degeneration or age-induced death will
occur, including, but not limited to, telomere shortening,
accumulation of unerasable memories and learned pieces of
information, cumulative scarring in dentin or elsewhere, or
continual growth of tissues after their appropriate size has been
attained. Cells will not divide continually as they do in
unmodified humans, but rather they will only divide for the
purposes of growth and regeneration. The reduced cell division
will also reduce the body's demands for energy and protein. All
human cells will express telomerase and TERT anyway, such
that growth and regeneration will not shorten the telomeres. All
of those modifications will only be made on zygotes that have
been modified to produce fine, clear, rightful intent, such that
the humans so modified will voluntarily die if and when it will
benefit the whole of society.

subcategory: autonomy

10. vitamins and other essential chemicals:
In unmodified humans, there is a dependency upon many
different environment-derived chemicals, either for survival,
basic health, or optimum function. Those chemicals are the
fat-soluble vitamins, the water-soluble vitamins, the essential
amino acids, the essential fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6
fatty acids, creatine, carnitine, taurine, choline, and antioxidants.
Some of such chemicals are produced by the human body, but
only in minimal amounts. Consuming all of such chemicals in a
sufficient and optimum amount is very difficult, and the
dependency thereof is very dangerous due to the unreliable
nature of both the economy and the natural environment. Also,
any dependence upon rare substances can be used for the
purpose of extortion. In the corrected state, humans will possess
all of the enzymes necessary to convert common biochemical
substances into all of the essential chemicals that are required in
small amounts. The enzymes necessary to synthesize the
essential chemicals exist in other organisms (else the chemicals
would not exist in the first place), so they will be transferred to
humans from those organisms. Increasing the production of
chemical-synthesizing enzymes that humans already possess
requires only a small genetic modification. The enzymes will be
expressed only in specialized cells, preferably located on the
interior surface of blood vessels, so as to release the chemicals
into the blood stream. The specialization is necessary to prevent
the newly-implanted enzymes from interfering with biochemicals
of other tissues.

11. minerals:
In unmodified humans, there is a dependency upon very small
amounts of many different elements. The elements calcium and
phosphorus serve as essential structural materials of bones and
teeth. The elements sodium, calcium, potassium, and chlorine
serve as essential electrolytes in neurons. Most other trace
minerals serve as coenzymes. Most or all of the required trace
elements other than those already mentioned are chromium,
cobalt, copper, iron, lithium, magnesium, manganese, selenium,
zinc, and possibly other elements also. The human body wastes
a large quantity of minerals by excreting them in the urine, and
possibly some in the feces, rather than recovering and recycling
them. Consuming all of the essential elements in an amount that
is sufficient for optimum function is very difficult, though corrupt
government agencies that serve various food and vitamin
companies greatly exaggerate the necessary requirements. The
dependence upon constant environmental sources of all of those
minerals is very dangerous due to the unreliable nature of both
the economy and the natural environment. Also, any
dependence upon environmental sources of rare substances can
be used for the purpose of extortion. In the corrected state,
there will be many proteins that prevent minerals from being
excreted from the body, and recover them for reuse, except
when there is a large excess of a mineral.

12. cellulase:
In unmodified humans, the gene that codes for the proteins of
the conversion of cellulose and the related disaccharide
cellobiose into glucose, which are collectively called cellulase,
are absent. Those proteins are also absent in all other
vertebrates. In animals that can digest cellulose, that ability only
exists due to the fact that those animals harbor
cellulose-digesting microbes, which are delicate and very
energy-intensive to maintain. Despite the omnipresence of that
lack of ability, the ability to digest cellulose is such a fundamental
function that it's absence constitutes a flaw. The vast majority of
plant matter is composed of cellulose, meaning that very little
plant matter is edible to unmodified humans, and of that which is,
little of it is healthy. Also, undigested cellulose in the food of
unmodified humans, which constitutes most dietary fiber, is
decomposed by archaebacteria which convert it to methane,
which causes both farts and gas pains. In the corrected state,
humans will possess the genes of the cellulase proteins. The
cellulase proteins will be expressed in the small intestine rather
than the stomach, as the stomach is highly acidic and may halt
the function of the cellulase.

13. stasis ability:
In unmodified humans, a large amount of energy, that being over
half of the energy of sedentary humans, is constantly consumed
for the purpose of sustaining the body temperature of between
97 and 100 degrees fahrenheit (about 37 degrees celsius),
which human proteins function best in. The human body
temperature drops from birth to adulthood by about 1.5
degrees. The human body constantly generates heat, which is
why temperatures above 85 degrees are perceived by humans
as hot, even when resting, meaning that the human body wastes
a great deal of energy in the generation of heat. If the body
temperature drops by even a few degrees, many proteins,
especially those of the nervous system, will falter, resulting in a
condition called hypothermia, and if it drops as low as 78
degrees fahrenheit (20 degrees below normal), death occurs.
Many animals are cold-blooded, such that they can live and
function through large temperature changes, and their proteins
are functional over a wide range of temperature, though they are
less effective than those of warm-blooded animals that are at
their optimum temperature. Also, many mammals can hibernate
and drop their temperature by over 10 degrees. Due to the laws
of thermodynamics, the greater the difference in temperature
between 2 adjacent bodies, the higher the rate of heat transfer
between the 2. Humans evolved a high blood temperature
because the use of clothing allowed it. The average human heart
rate is approximately 70 beats per minute. When that beat
lowers enough such that the cells do not have sufficient oxygen
to maintain their metabolic functions, the most prominent of
which is body temperature maintenance, they automatically die.
When the human heart rate drops greatly below it's average
resting rate, pulmonary edema occurs. Pulmonary edema is the
filling of the lungs with fluid from the capillaries. Pulmonary
edema due to greatly-decreased heart rate is the result of the
pressure in the veins increasing from a negative pressure to a
neutral pressure, as fluid is kept out of the lungs due to a
pressure balance. Because of all of those facts, humans are very
vulnerable to cold and/or starvation, and extremely vulnerable
to temporary lapses in heart function. In the corrected state, the
pressure balance mechanism of the capillary fluid in the lungs will
be replaced with a pressure-independent system. The
mechanisms that cause cells to automatically die when only
partially deprived of oxygen will not be present. Humans will be
able to conserve energy in a manner that is initiated by the
frontal cortex (the thinking part of the brain) by dropping their
body temperature by at least 30 degrees (at least about 70
degrees fahrenheit) and lowering their heart rate by at least half,
at the expense of efficient muscular and neural function. That will
be possible because humans will have some of the neuron
proteins from cold-blooded animals that will allow the neural
system to maintain basic function at low temperatures,
particularly the maintenance of heart pumping and breathing, and
a minimal amount of consciousness that will allow the frontal
cortex to initiate the end of the stasis state when appropriate.
The ability to drop the body temperature and/or heart rate even
further, with or without the use of biological antifreeze, such that
an exceptional amount of energy can be conserved and life can
be sustained through great cold and/or starvation, constitutes an

not within a subcategory:

14. glucose management:
In unmodified humans, when a substantial amount of
glucose from food is consumed, it is rapidly absorbed into the
bloodstream due to the effects of the polypeptide gastrin, and in
turn it stimulates the production of the protein insulin and the
polypeptide GIP (which increases insulin) to rapidly counteract
the heightened glucose by storing it as glycogen in the cells,
especially muscle and liver cells, and none in neurons or glials.
The leftover insulin in turn continues to lower the glucose beyond
it's original level. There is no specific hormone that slows
digestion without causing an additional effect, such as high
insulin (as in the polypeptide GIP). Neurons or glials do not store
glucose, nor do they derive energy from lipids in the
bloodstream as some tissues do, but they are uniquely
dependent upon blood glucose for energy, meaning that
increasingly low levels of blood glucose cause corresponding
increasing mental fatigue, and a very low level of blood glucose
causes death due to neuron dysfunction. When the level of
glycogen in the cells is at or near it's maximum, additional
glucose is either converted into stored fat or wasted as heat due
to an increase in the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. The thyroid
gland produces about 4 times as much T4 as T3, but most T4 is
converted to T3 within the cells, and T3 is much more potent
than T4. T3, and to a lesser extent, T4, produce heat by acting
on the mitochondria. The thyroid hormones cause hydrogen ions
which are pressurized in the mitochondrial interspace (which are
normally directed through the protein ATP synthase (aka ATP
synthetase) to produce the energy chemical ATP) to flow back
through the protein channels that they were packed though,
which produces no ATP but generates a large amount of heat.
In the corrected state, there will be a hormone (which may be
called digestion-inhibiting hormone here) that inhibits digestion
(and therefore the release of glucose and other substances into
the bloodstream) without causing any other effects.
Digestion-inhibiting hormone will initially be dominant over
gastrin, and after food is consumed, gastrin will only rise slowly
(unlike in unmodified humans), and will be regulated by the
amount of glucose released in the blood, such that a high level
thereof halts gastrin production and induces the production of
digestion-inhibiting hormone to the appropriate degree, such
that there can not be spikes or dips in blood glucose. When the
level of glycogen in the cells is at it's maximum,
digestion-inhibiting hormone will rise and greatly slow digestion,
as contrasted with unmodified humans, in which the excess
glucose is converted to fat or burned off as excess heat. The
level of glycogen stored in the cells will be directly proportional
to the level of somatotropin (aka growth hormone) that is
secreted into the bloodstream.

15. muscle latching:
In unmodified humans, when a muscle is contracted to a certain
degree (and therefore also the part that it moves), it constantly
consumes energy in maintaining that state, especially if it is lifting
a heavy load. The constant contraction of the muscle causes it to
tire quickly. For every human muscle, only about 1/4th of the
available muscle fibers are used. That serves the purpose of
energy conservation, and it eliminates the necessity of making
the bones stronger and heavier, which would further consume
energy. When norepinephrine or epinephrine is very high, the
latent muscular fibers are disinhibited. In the corrected state,
there will be a latching mechanism within the muscles that
prevents them from consuming energy when in a constant
degree of contraction. The latch though will be capable of being
broken with sufficient force in a manner that does not cause any
damage, so as to prevent weakened or broken bones, tendons,
and/or ligaments. The latching mechanism will also incorporate
the latent muscle fibers, so as to prevent any possible damage to
the muscle fibers from a heavy load.

16. muscle and cardiovascular adaptation:
In unmodified humans, increasing muscle strength, muscle
endurance, or general cardiovascular endurance is an extremely
time-consuming process, taking several weeks or even several
months. When a body is not exercised, the muscles and
cardiovascular system eventually degrade to a very weak state.
The strength of a muscle is determined by the quantity of
myofibrils within it. The endurance of a muscle is determined by
the quantity of sarcoplasm in it. Sarcoplasm consists of
capillaries and mitochondria. General cardiovascular ability is
determined by the strength of the heart muscle, the size of the
lungs, and the degree of blood vessel permeation.
Dihydrotestosterone receptors in the muscles decrease the
speed with which both myofibrils and sarcoplasm grow in
response to exercise. In the corrected state, the lower limit to
which the muscles and cardiovascular system can degrade due
to lack of exercise will be much higher than that of unmodified
humans. Adaptive growth of the muscles and cardiovascular
system in response to exercise will be 3 times faster than that of
unmodified humans. Increasing the speed of muscle or
cardiovascular adaptation much more than that constitutes an

17. cancer:
In unmodified humans, when DNA is damaged, such as by
radiation or chemicals, the cell of the DNA has a small but
substantial probability of becoming cancer. That is due to the
damage of a specific gene or genes. In the corrected state, there
will be several genes throughout the genome that produce
proteins that serve the sole function of recognizing their cell as
cancerous and killing it if that is the case, such that cancer can
not occur as a result of general DNA damage.

18. nail grain:
In unmodified humans, the nails of the fingers, and sometimes
the toes as well, are much less resistant to tearing across the
lengthwise dimension than across the perpendicular crosswise
dimension. As a result, nails or parts of nails are likely to be torn
in such a way that they damage the cuticle and/or expand the
damage to other parts of the nail. In the corrected state, nails
will have much more tensile strength in the crosswise dimension
than in the lengthwise dimension, so as to minimize damage.

19. palm and sole water adhesion:
In unmodified humans, the skin of palms of the hands and soles
of the feet is strongly adherent to water and other liquids, unlike
other areas of the skin surface. That is due to a detrimental
evolutionary side-effect of the evolution of the palms and soles.
As a result, water remains on the palms and soles for a long time
and adheres to contaminants in one's environment. Because of
the high rate of interaction of the palms and soles with the
environment, those are the places that should have the least
water adherence. In the corrected state, the skin of the palms
and soles will have little adhesiveness to water and other liquids.

20. fecal indole and skatole:
In unmodified humans, the intestines contain a large amount of
bacteria. That bacteria digests dietary fiber, sloughed-off
intestinal cells, and a portion of the digestible food. Among
those products that the intestinal bacteria digests, it does not
properly digest all of the protein thereof. The bacteria does not
properly catabolize the amino acid tryptophan. As a result, the
toxic byproducts indole and skatole are produced. Indole and
skatole are chemically nearly-identical, as they both consist of
the tryptophan side chain, except that indole lacks the methyl
group nearest the amino acid backbone. Both chemicals are
vaporous and toxic to humans when inhaled, as they kill lung
cells. In the corrected state, the intestines will produce enzymes,
which are secreted into the intestinal tract, which break indole
and skatole down into smaller, less-toxic and/or non-toxic


subcategory: non-protective mobility

21. neck turning:
In unmodified humans, the head can turn only about 70 degrees
to either side by the action of it's own muscles. That limitation is
caused by the position of the sternocleidomastoid muscle
attachment on the skull, as it is situated not very far back. If the
head is relaxed and turned by the hands, it can turn only about
80 degrees. That is due to the tightness of the connective tissues
and/or the limit of turning of the cervical vertebra bones. In the
corrected state, the sternocleidomastoid muscle attachment on
the skull will be situated about 2 inches further back, the
connective tissues of the neck that limit neck twisting will be
loosened, and the cervical vertebrae will have any necessary
alterations to allow the head to turn as far as the other parts
allow. Together, that will allow the head to turn about 100
degrees to either side.

22. shoulder mobility:
In unmodified humans, the shoulder, the position of which
moves with the clavicle (collar bone) can be revolved around
the torso about 30 degrees forward and about 60 degrees
backward. Resting the shoulder-moving muscles and moving the
shoulder via an external force does not increase either of those
numbers, meaning that the movement limitation is not due to the
muscles of movement, but rather the connective tissues and/or
bone. There is no 'shoulder bone', but rather the bone inside the
shoulder is the head of the humerus (the upper arm bone). The
shoulder often obstructs motion, and especially forward motion,
due to it's prominence and relative rigidity of position. In the
corrected state, the bones, connective tissues, and muscles of
the shoulder region will be such that the shoulder will be able to
revolve around the torso 90 degrees forward and 90 degrees

23. thumb and palm finger mobility:
In unmodified humans, various connective tissues drasticly
restrict the maximum angle of the thumb to the second
metacarpal bone (in the edge of the palm), such that when the
thumb is aligned with the 2nd palm finger (aka middle finger), it
can only extend about 50 degrees away from the palm. As a
result, a hand can not effectively hold a large but light-weight
load. The palm fingers (meaning the fingers other than the thumb
here) have minimal ability to twist, much less twist
independently. As a result, a hand can not effectively handle
multiple objects. The palm fingers can not bend backward,
under their own power, by more than 45 degrees beyond being
aligned with the palm, and some individual fingers, especially
when straight, can not bend forward or backward relative to the
adjacent fingers by more than 45 degrees or less. As a result,
many tasks that require the use of only one finger, or a specific
combination of fingers, can not be done without the other fingers
getting in the way. In the corrected state, the connective tissues
that determine the maximum angle of the thumb relative the palm
will be long and/or loose enough such that the thumb, when
aligned with the middle finger, will have a maximum
thumb-to-palm angle of about 100 degrees, and any related
necessary muscle structure will be present. All of the palm
fingers will be able to twist independently by about 45 degrees
in either direction, due to the presence of diagonal muscles that
attach to the metacarpals (long bones inside the palm) and the
proximal phalanx bones (bones of the fingers nearest to the
palm) of the palm fingers, and any related necessary traits of the
bones and connective tissues. The palm fingers will be able to
bend backward, under their own power, by 90 degrees. Each
palm finger will not be any more restrained in it's range of
motion, relative to it's maximum range, based upon the degree
of bending of any of the other fingers, due to the absence of the
relevant restraining connective tissues and/or feedback nerves.

24. foot stability:
In unmodified humans, the back portion of the base of foot,
upon which most of a person's weight is put on, has a very small
horizontal area as compared to the body that it supports. As a
result, the ability of a human to balance on one foot, which is
useful for many tasks, is very impaired. In the corrected state,
the back portion of the base of the foot will be 1/3rd wider than
in unmodified humans, and will also have the corresponding
strengthened lateral musculature.

25. vaginal urination:
In unmodified humans, in females, the opening of the urethra is
deep inside the labia of the vagina. As a result, women must
pee sitting down, else their urine sprays or dribbles down their
legs. In the corrected state, the area from which the urethra
opens will project out beyond the labia, such that females can
urinate cleanly in any position.

subcategory: protective mobility

26. eye and ear coverage from sensory excess:
In unmodified humans, the eye can cover itself with the thin
eyelid, which translucently lets a substantial fraction of light
through, probably no more than 1/8th, but that is nonetheless
not sufficient to protect from bright lights. The eyes can be
squinted further, such that wrinkles of skin protect the eyes
more, but that is very energy-consuming. The ears do not have
any self-covering mechanism. Because of that, it is necessary to
to use the hands to cover or uncover the ears, which interferes
with the necessary activity of the hands, and it is necessary to
use artificial earphones to cover the ears at all without having to
use the hands constantly. In the corrected state, humans will
have a second, thicker eyelid that can be lowered without the
use of constant flexing. The second eyelid will contain a thick
layer (about 2 millimeters) of collagen and cover the eye surface
completely. The ear opening will be surrounded by a thick
muscle sphincter (about 1/4 inch / 6 millimeters thick) that can
be sealed completely. The sphincters of the ears will contain a
latching mechanism which eliminates the necessity of constant
flexing. The muscles of both structures will be attached to
nearby motor nerves.

27. nose and ear coverage from foreign substances:
In unmodified humans, neither the nose nor the ears can close
themselves. As a result, foreign substances other than air can
enter them. That is especially true in the case of submerging the
head in a fluid, usually water, at certain angles, in which the fluid
enters the nasal sinus and/or auditory canal. In the corrected
state, the nose will contain a muscle sphincter that can close the
nose opening completely. The ear will contain a small, thin
muscle sphincter 1 millimeter within the opening, which can
close completely, and is thin enough to allow most sound to
pass through. The sphincters of both the nose and the ears will
contain a latching mechanism which eliminates the necessity of
constant flexing.

28. trachea contamination:
In unmodified humans, if a substance, such as a liquid, a thick
semi-liquid such as mucus (a solution of the glycoprotein mucin),
or a solid object, is in the trachea, there is no way to easily
remove the foreign substance. The trachea consists of many
incomplete 300-degree cartilage rings with the gap in the back,
which are held together by connective tissue. The upper trachea
in the throat is a thick one-piece tube of cartilage. Coughing is
only effective in removing material from lower levels of the
bronchial tree, as air simply flows past substances that adhere to
the walls of the trachea. If the lungs are empty of air when a
solid object becomes lodged in the trachea, then there is little
that can be done to remove it. In the corrected state, the
trachea can be contracted semi-shut in the front-to-back
dimension by multiple muscle sphincters, which will be possible
due to the cartilage being thin on the sides of the trachea. That
will allow solid objects to be removed more easily, and it will
allow the the area through which the air flows to be reduced,
thus allowing substances that adhere to the wall of the trachea
to be expelled.

subcategory: durability

29. eye vulnerability:
In unmodified humans, the surface of the eye is a mucus
membrane, such that it is highly vulnerable to infection and
damage from chemicals. It is also very vulnerable to
powder-induced dehydration, and to small particles that are
even slightly abrasive, such as eyelash hairs and grains of sand.
In the corrected state, the surface of the eye will contain keratin
and durable transparent material, such that it will be
approximately equally as vulnerable to damage as skin.

30. foot vulnerability:
In unmodified humans, the foot, due to hundreds of thousands
of years of shoe usage, is not suited for it's function of protecting
against hard ground substances and various sharp natural
objects that are often on the ground. In particular, the foot has
vulnerable blood vessels under it that are prone to damage from
high pressure, and the bones of the human foot have little
protection from impact.  In the corrected state, there will be a
layer of cartilage about 3/16ths of an inch thick (about 4.5
millimeters) that covers the bone on the soles of the feet. Also,
the blood vessels under the feet will be smaller, such that they
are less effected by high pressure.

31. butt vulnerability:
In unmodified humans, when the weight of the body is on the
butt, which in turn is on a hard surface, the weight is
concentrated on the 2 small areas (one on each side) of the
edges of the blade-like ischium bones and the flesh that is
trapped between the bone and the hard surface. That causes
some damage to the flesh, and over time, it can warp the
structure of the bone, as is evident by the differences in hip bone
form in cultures of people that often sit on their butt and those
of people who do not. In the corrected state, the lower part of
the ischium will be twice as wide as that of an unmodified
human, and there will be a 1/4th-inch-thick (8 millimeters) layer
of cartilage on the outside edge of the ischium.

32. solar plexus vulnerability:
In unmodified humans, there is a large group of interconnected
nerve ganglia located behind the stomach. It is popularly called
the solar plexus, or more properly, the celiac plexus. The celiac
plexus is linked to the stomach, duodenum (the first part of the
small intestines), liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and adrenal
glands. The celiac plexus uses feedback from each organ to
coordinate their actions. If the horizontal middle of the front of
the torso, between the 2 downward dips of each side of ribs is
quickly impacted with even little force, it temporarily disrupts the
function of the celiac plexus, causing indigestion, and it causes a
large amount of pain during and immediately after the impact. In
the corrected state, the solar plexus will not be prone to being
damaged by an impact any more so than the small intestines.

33. esophagus vulnerability:
In unmodified humans, the esophagus is particularly vulnerable
to damage, and therefore pain, from an impact or pressure on
the front of the trachea, as the esophagus is soft and is situated
between the vertebra bones and the thick cartilaginous trachea.
In the corrected state, the esophagus will be at least twice as
thick as that of unmodified humans, such that it will be able to
distribute the pressure and therefore be able to withstand a low
level of pressure without being damaged.

34. testicle vulnerability:
In unmodified humans, in males, the testicles are situated outside
the main body, are unprotected, and are very vulnerable to
damage and the resulting pain, such that males must be always
be cautious not to damage them. In the corrected state, there
will be a durable, semi-flexible wall of cartilage of about 1/8th
of an inch thick (about 3 millimeters) that lines the scrotum and
is anchored on the pelvis bone.

35. vagina vulnerability in childbirth:
In unmodified humans, in females, the vagina is not constructed
to easily stretch widely enough for a baby to fit through without
causing significant tissue damage and resulting pain. In the
corrected state, the vagina will be modified to be elastic enough
to allow babies to pass through in the absence of tissue damage
or the pain that results from it.

36. brain-skull interface:
In unmodified humans, there is minimal cushioning substance
between the brain and the skull, and as a result, the brain is very
vulnerable to damage by mere low-intensity jarring, such as
jerking the head by ones own neck muscles. In the corrected
state, a cushioning tissue of about 1/4 of an inch (about 7
millimeters) will be between the brain and the skull. The
presence of additional cushioning material that can protect the
brain against high-intensity jarring constitutes an enhancement.
The best biological cushioning substance is a matrix of collagen
and elastin fibers and fat.

subcategory: internal accessibility

37. sinus access:
In unmodified humans, the nostril openings are small relative to
the size of the nasal sinus, and a large, flat, vertical piece of
cartilage called the septum splits both the nasal sinus and the
nostrils into 2. The part of the septum in the nose is anchored to
bones at the top and bottom of the nose. That causes those 2
bones to be very vulnerable to breakage due to bending of the
septum. The nostril openings are constricted relative to the
cavity within the nose. The nasal sinus often becomes clogged
with semi-dry mucus, due to disease, allergic reactions, or for
the purpose of filtering out airborne particles (which is related to
allergic reactions). The function of mucus of filtering air is
important for improving the oxygen supply to the blood. When
the nasal sinus is clogged with mucus, the opposite occurs, as
breathing is diverted to the mouth, which causes minimal air
filtration. In the corrected state, the nasal septum will not exist
and the nostril openings will be unconstricted, such that
semi-solid mucus clogs in the nasal sinus can be removed.

38. intestinal gas management:
In unmodified humans, gas, such as methane, is likely to be
produced in large quantities in the intestines, especially after
eating certain foods or combinations of food. The gas can only
escape through the anus, and the entire length of the intestines is
very long, being about 25 feet. As a result, gas is likely to build
up in the intestine and stretch it, damaging the intestine. In the
corrected state, there will be several ducts along the mid line of
the abdomen on the front side of the intestines, which lead from
the abdomen to the skin, such that they allow gas to escape.
The ducts will all converge into a single duct before they reach
the surface. The single outlet duct will emerge in the navel and
have a sphincter on the end which keeps it sealed when it is not
expelling gas. The ducts will run between the intestines and the
abdominal muscles.


subcategory: control

39. esophagus peristalsis and gag reflexes:
In unmodified humans, the esophagus automatically and
irreversibly pushes food or other material down from top to
bottom if it is placed in the top of the esophagus. That is called
the peristalsis reflex. The intestines also have a peristalsis reflex.
Often, a human eats toxic food, due to spoilage or otherwise,
and smells the toxic odors of the contaminated food just as it is
being swallowed by the peristalsis reflex, and the human is
aware of the toxic nature of the food but is unable to regurgitate
it because the peristalsis reflex has irreversibly pushed the
contaminated food down. When a finger or other object is
inserted into the back of the mouth, the gag reflex occurs, which
consists of a tightening of the throat combined with a forward
heave. That prevents the examination of the back of the mouth
or the removal of any thick mucus, other thick semi-liquids, or
other objects stuck there. In the corrected state, the esophagus
peristalsis reflex will be reversible by the direct control of the
conscious brain, and the gag reflex will not be present.

40. eye mobility:
In unmodified humans, both eyes must move in the same
direction, except in the case of crossed eyes, which serves only
to view objects that are very close. As a result, humans can not
visually multitask, and in turn, much of the capacity of the brain
and the body can not be used in some situations. That is not the
result of the muscles of the eyes, but of the nerves of the eyes,
that is, the occulomotor nerves. In the corrected state, each eye
will be able to move independently, though both eyes will move
together by default unless the human specificly wills them to do

41. sleep induction and necessary duration:
In unmodified humans, sleep occurs in relatively rigid cycles, and
can be greatly altered by external factors, especially bright light
versus dim light, standing versus laying posture (which is the
result of the fact that norepinephrine is lower when one is laying,
as norepinephrine causes wakefulness), gastrointestinal
disturbance (which causes wakefulness), hunger (which causes
wakefulness), and emotional arousal (which causes high
norepinephrine and therefore wakefulness). Aside from the
external factors that alter the time of sleep induction, sleep is
primarily induced by neural fatigue. Sleep serves the function of
expending energy largely for the purposes of growth, wound
healing, and fighting disease, and sleep also serves the functions
of consolidating memories and restoring the nervous system.
The last of those functions is the one that sleep is most specificly
essential for. A human that is completely deprived of sleep dies
after approximately 10 days, due to degradation of the nervous
system. The complete span of sleep for the average adult human
is 7 hours (not 8 hours, as has often been popularized). A few
humans, due to rare genetic alleles, can restore themselves with
as little as 4 hours of sleep. Evolving rapid restoration to reduce
sleep hours is no evolutionary difficulty, as long sleep hours exist
primarily for the purpose of conserving energy, though it is not
very efficient to that end, as the body temperature and heart rate
do not lower greatly. Because of that, prey animals that are
always vulnerable, particularly the ungulates, have unlengthened
sleep hours, whereas animals that are in little danger, such as
predators, have greatly lengthened sleep hours. The rigid sleep
cycles create the effect called jet lag when a person has
travelled by airplane over several timezones over a short period
of time. The rigid sleep cycles, as well as the various external
factors that effect sleep, greatly disrupt potential human
productivity and schedule-keeping. In the corrected state,
humans will be able to induce sleep directly from the frontal
cortex (the thinking part of the brain) at any time, with an
induction time of no more than 5 seconds, and they will be able
to prolong wakefulness in a neurally-fatigued state for several
hours without being involuntarily pulled into sleep. Due to
accelerated restoration, the necessary duration of sleep will be
at least as low as 4 hours.

42. vagus nerve and pituitary effects:
In unmodified humans, the heart rate, blood pressure,
vasodilation versus vasoconstriction, degree of perspiration on
the hands and armpits, cortisol secretion (cortisol weakens
various components of the body), and sebum production is not
under any substantial direct control by the frontal cortex (the
thinking part of the brain), but rather, with the exception of
control by physical necessity (such as exercise or temperature),
they are under the control of the emotions, especially anger and
anxiety, but also other emotions as well. The control of those
physiological functions by the emotions is mediated by
norepinephrine, the vagus nerve (one of the 12 cranial nerves),
the sympathetic nervous system (which is directed by a row of
ganglions on each side of the spinal cord), the parasympathetic
nervous system, and the pituitary gland (which is the 'master
gland' which directs the other glands of the body). As a result of
that emotional control, there are bad and/or distracting effects,
such as muscle weakening (due to cortisol), weakened immune
system (also due to cortisol), heart problems (due to blood
pressure, heart rate, and vasoconstriction), itching (due to
increased sebum production), the inability to hold writing
utensils (due to palm sweating), and clothes soaking (due to
increased armpit sweating). In the corrected state, the frontal
cortex (the thinking part of the brain) will have direct control
over the physical effects produced by the emotions on heart
rate, blood pressure, vasodilation versus vasoconstriction, and
cortisol secretion. The emotion-induced physiological effects of
increased sweating of the palms and armpits and increased
sebum production will be completely absent, as they serve no
practical function, at least in modern humans.

43. detrimental strong motivational emotions:
In unmodified humans, there is a vulnerability to having powerful
emotions that can override the restraining force of judgment.
The most notable emotions thereof are anger, fear, and desire
for various pleasures. Judgment is caused by the prefrontal
cortex. In the corrected state, humans will be able to directly
restrain the strength of their motivational emotions from their
frontal cortex, which is the thinking part of the brain.

44. penile erection:
In unmodified humans, in males, the penis can become erect or
stay erect against conscious intent, due to being controlled
by other factors, those being psychological sexual arousal and
non-psychological factors. Because of that, an erection that is
visible can deceptively indicate that a human male is
psychologically sexually aroused when they are not, and in turn
cause others to consider them to be less responsible in their
work ethic than they in fact are, and in turn trust them less than
is appropriate. In the corrected state, penile erection will never
occur nor maintain itself against conscious intent, due to a direct
efferent neural pathway from the motor cortex to terminals that
relax the veins of the penis, thereby terminating erection when

45. ovulation periods:
In unmodified humans, in females after the age of puberty, there
is an involuntary 28-day cycle in which the sex hormones
estradiol and progesterone greatly fluctuate, the uterus is
prepared for birth with a lining of flesh that is rich in blood
vessels, an egg is made fertile for conception, and the egg and
the bloody uterus lining are discarded out of the vagina if
conception does not occur in what is called menstruation, which
is usually the case. The blood and other materials that are
involuntarily expelled from the vagina can soil clothing and other
objects and can disrupt activities, unless the vagina is plugged or
covered with artificial absorbent material during the days that
the menstrual discharge occurs or is likely to occur. The
involuntary ovulation cycle can cause unintended pregnancy. In
the corrected state, ovulation will be initiated directly by the
conscious intent of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum, via a brain
region adjacent to that which causes voluntary urination, and by
no other cause.

46. memory management:
In unmodified humans, memories (not excluding learned facts)
can be formed and/or maintained against conscious intent, and
memories can be lost against conscious intent. As a result,
valued memories are often lost and unvalued memories
increasingly consume the brain's capacity for memory until it is
expended or nearly-expended, and that constitutes a major
factor of aging. In the corrected state, there will be direct
projections from the frontal lobe (the thinking part of the brain)
to the parts of the brain that store memories, such that conscious
intent can prevent the formation of a memory, erase or weaken
a memory, or make a memory immune to automatic
degradation. However, highly familiar, repetitively used
memories will not be subject to being erased.

subcategory: elimination of erratic neural activity

47. the hiccup reflex:
In unmodified humans, there is an involuntary reflex, called a
hiccup, that tightens the diaphragm and resultingly compresses
and lifts the lungs and ribs, seals the throat, and creates a small
amount of dull pain. In addition to the purposeless dull pain that
hiccups cause, they disrupt breathing, talking, eating, and to a
lesser extent, every other activity. Hiccups are caused by the
phrenic nerve, which controls the contraction of the diaphragm.
The phrenic nerve is prone to firing in the absence of stimuli or
in the presence of irrelevant stimuli, especially the expansion of
the esophagus or stomach due to food and/or drink. In the
corrected state, the hiccup reflex will not be present, due to the
phrenic nerve not firing in the presence of irrelevant stimuli or no
stimuli at all.

48. yawning:
In unmodified humans, there is an involuntary movement, called
a yawn, in which the mouth opens and air is inhaled, though not
necessarily through the mouth. The yawn might serve the useful
purpose of clearing built-up carbon dioxide out of the lungs
when appropriate, and the opening of the mouth may serve the
useful purpose of increasing the effectiveness of the jaw muscle
by eliminating the effects of short-term stagnation, as all
reflexive stretching may do. However, the involuntary opening
of the mouth disrupts speech, eating / drinking, and playing
musical instruments, and can cause saliva, food / drink, or
transported objects to fall out of the mouth. When a person
observes an other person yawn, they themself feel like yawning
and often do, which is disruptive to a person's activities. In the
corrected state, the yawn will never occur when conscious intent
is opposed to it, even if only somewhat opposed, and the
observation of an other person's yawn will not increase the
probability that one's self will yawn.

49. subliminal messages, suggestion, and hypnosis:
In unmodified humans, the action of the body (not excluding the
brain) can be made to contradict natural conscious intent via the
use of subliminal messages, the power of suggestion, and
hypnosis. In the corrected state, subliminal messages, the power
of suggestion, and hypnosis will not be capable of causing the
action of the body to contradict conscious intent, due to the
neural pathways that they depend upon being absent.

50. depression and excess pain:
In unmodified humans, physical pain often occurs in uselessly
high degrees. Physical pain serves the useful function of causing
humans or other conscious animals to not do certain actions that
are damaging to themself or to extricate themself from a
situation that is damaging themself. Beyond a certain degree,
pain does not motivate a person any more than that which is
required for them to do all that they can to prevent themself
from being damaged. Also, the high degree of pain impairs
cognition, which is necessary to devise methods by which to
prevent oneself from being damaged. In the corrected state,
there will be un upper limit to the degree of physical pain that a
human can feel, due to a limitation of the quantity of the brain
receptors nk1, nk2, bradykinin receptors, and possibly also the
nociceptin receptor. Depression will be completely absent, as it
serves no practical function, at least in modern humans.

51. pleasure addiction and tolerance:
In unmodified humans, the infusion into the bloodstream of
chemicals that produce pleasure, and to a lesser extent the
experience of any type of strong pleasure, produces a
psychological dependence upon such pleasure so as to avoid
a strong painful sensation of restlessness (caused by the nk1
receptor). It also decreases the strength of the pleasure that is
produced from the same source (an effect called 'tolerance'),
thus motivating erratic and unreliable behavior due to uncertain
rewards. Tolerance is caused largely by the nociceptin receptor.
In the corrected state, pleasure will not cause addiction or

52. dreams:
In unmodified humans, there are dreams during part of sleep.
When dreaming, a human is not aware that they are dreaming.
Due to the deception of dreams, humans often expend mental
energy on the situations that they present, and such effort has no
long-term benefit, nor even is short-term benefit guaranteed,
because dreams do not follow the laws of reality. Due to the
deceptions of dreams, humans fear problems that do not exist,
and expect good fortune that does not exist. On rare occasion,
dreams offer some insight that comes from the subconscious,
but humans do not remember most of their dreams, and humans
often remember their dreams only briefly but then forget them, so
it makes little difference. Dreams consume a large amount of the
time that a human must sleep, in which little restoration is done
to the brain as compared with non-REM sleep. In the corrected
state, dreams will not occur, and as an additional result, the
necessary length of sleep will be greatly reduced.

53. sense of smell variation:
In unmodified humans, the sense of smell varies greatly over the
span of a day. The sense of smell is also dulled to some
chemicals after being exposed to them over a brief time. In the
corrected state, the strength of the sense of smell will remain
constant over time, in a state of relatively strong sensitivity, and it
will not be dulled to some chemicals after exposure.

subcategory: elimination of degradation

54. memory alteration:
In unmodified humans, whenever a sensory memory (which is
analog, as distinguished from learned facts, which are digital) is
recalled, there is a large chance that it will be altered in the
retrieval process, especially in the small details that are not
specificly noted (as those noted details are digital). As a result,
a given sensory memory is likely to become less accurate with
every retrieval. In the corrected state, the retrieval of sensory
memories will not cause them to be altered or prone to

55. automatic neuron apoptosis:
In unmodified humans, when certain neural pathways are
inactive for a certain amount of time, they automaticly degrade.
Destroying some of such neurons serves the useful function of
making room for glials. To destroy a large fraction of such
neurons serves the function of conserving a small amount of
energy, at a great expense of functionality. The latter function is
the only reason for pathway degradation in the periphery
(outside the brain). In the corrected state, no automatic neural
pathway degradation due to disuse will occur in the periphery,
and the maximum degree of such automatic degradation in the
brain will be greatly limited.

subcategory: intent

56. socially destructive evolutionary hangover character traits:
In unmodified humans, there is malicious intent, malice being
defined as the desire to perceive and act with crude blind
wrongness, and it's opposite, goodwill, being defined as the
desire to perceive and act with fine clear rightness. In a
scientificly knowledgeable society, clear-sighted goodwill is
beneficial and blind malice is detrimental, whereas in a
scientificly unknowledgeable society, including that of the
non-human animals, the opposite is more often than not
true. Specificly, malice has various effects, which are:
1. the desire to maintain problems rather than overcome them,
2. the desire to arbitrarily control, harass, torture, and steal
from others, and 3. the desire to serve a single clan patriarch
at the expense of the group. When technology is poor, it is
more beneficial to the species to maliciously ignore problems
rather then overcome them. When heredity and controlled
humane eugenics is unknown of, it is more beneficial to the
species to engage in random dominance competition, and to be
permissive toward the aggression one's own children, than to
breed all individuals without restriction. When the benefits of
large-scale teamwork are unknown of, it is better to serve the
inefficient whims of a clan patriarch (the instinctive basis of
nationalism and the belief in a god) then to live autonomously.
Malice is caused by the serotonin receptors 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B,
and 5-HT2C, the production of which is induced by sex
hormones, whereas goodwill is caused by the histamine
receptor H1 and the acetylcholine receptors M1 and M3. The
histamine receptor H2 causes perfectionism, which is necessary
for an individual to pursue useful large and long-term goals.
Activity of the malicious receptors is inhibited by the inhibitory
receptor 5-HT1A, and activity of the goodwilled receptors is
inhibited by the inhibitory receptor M2 and a receptor of
galantamine. Acetylcholine release is facilitated by the
presynaptic nicotinic receptors. There are also
neuropsychological side effects of goodwill and malice that
have evolved as a result of the chronic favor of malice.
Those are: 1. The 5-HT2C receptor increases endorphin,
the 5-HT2A receptor increases dopamine, the M1 receptor
decreases dopamine, and endorphin increases serotonin,
2. Acetylcholine increases the anxiety chemical cholecystokinin
(cholecystokinin also causes acceleration pain), and
cholecystokinin decreases both serotonin and endorphin. Also,
pain that results from acceleration is caused by neural pathways
in the brain that use the neurotransmitters cholecystokinin and
acetylcholine, 3. M4 acetylcholine receptors convert
norepinephrine into epinephrine, 4. Acetylcholine decreases
multitasking ability due to the action of the M4 receptors of the
striatum and possibly other factors as well, though that may also
increase the ability to concentrate, 5. Sex hormones (which
induce the production of malice receptors) increase the
production of growth hormone (which causes physical and
mental energy) or are increased in response to high growth
hormone. Specificly, dihydrotestosterone increases the
production of growth hormone, and growth hormone increases
the production of progesterone and to a lesser extent estradiol,
6. Dihydrotestosterone induces the production of
pain-decreasing enkephalin in the cingulate cortex, and estradiol
induces the production of beta-endorphin, and 7. Sex hormones
increase the quality of the body. Specificly, all of the sex
hormones increase fertility, dihydrotestosterone causes muscle
disinhibition and increased speed of muscle growth in response
to exercise, especially in males, estradiol and progesterone
increase bone strength and increase a female's ability to give
birth to and breastfeed offspring, and all of the sex hormones
improve physical attractiveness. (end of list) All of those
detrimental neurological side effects of goodwill may collectively
be called 'goodwill side-effect syndrome'. In the corrected state,
nuclear sex hormone receptors will not induce the production of
5-HT2 receptors. Sex hormones will be medium to high, as
their beneficial effects will occur without their detrimental effects.
Serotonin and galanin will be low, and acetylcholine and
histamine will be high. Acetylcholine will not increase the level
of cholecystokinin, the M4 receptor will not convert
norepinephrine into epinephrine, and acetylcholine will not
impair multitasking ability, though no ability to concentrate will
be sacrificed. Although this modification is a correction, it is also
the basic modification that must be made to a genome before
any enhancements should be made to it. This modification also
guarantees that the modified human will support transhumanism.

PART 5: Application

As of now, mid 2005, transhumanist work has consisted of
nothing except discussions, news-sharing, political debating, and
some political work on behalf of issues that are related to
transhumanism. There have apparently been no attempts at
actually IMPLEMENTING transhumanism, that is, modifying
human zygotes (probably produced in test tubes), most likely
via a retroviral gene-delivery vector. The genome of an
unmodified human has approximately 22,000 genes (in contrast
to an early crude estimate of approximately 30,000 genes).

Before the genetic modification of human zygotes occurs, it is
first necessary to research the relevant genes and proteins of the
various traits that are to be modified. That constitutes identifying
what genes and proteins produce a specific trait; discovering
how they produce that trait; learning their sequences; using that
information to extrapolate the nature of the modified genes and
proteins and their sequences; and testing the modified genes in
animals (preferably fast-growing animals) that are sufficiently
geneticly similar to humans in the relevant genes, until the
modified genes function successfully. An other option is to
geneticly engineer laboratory animals to grow more rapidly (so
as to get faster test results) and/or to have more human-like
genes (so as to get more accurate test results).

It is therefore in the immediate interest of transhumanists to
share any of the aforementioned research information.

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