Bedrohen die Roboter Mensch und Gesellschaft?
Florian Rötzer 27.07.2009, telepolis
„Eine Gruppe von US-Wissenschaftlern will die Entwicklung der Künstlichen Intelligenz sichern, indem sie vor Gefahren warnen und Regeln für die Forschung fordern
Roboter werden nicht nur autonomer, klüger und geschickter, sie dringen auch in immer weitere Bereiche der Lebenswelt ein. Offenbar ist eine Gruppe von Computerexperten, KI-Forschern und Robotwissenschaftlern, die im Februar an einem Treffen der Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence – natürlich in Kalifornien – teilgenommen haben, um über die künftige Folgen fortgeschrittener Künstlicher Intelligenz auf die Gesellschaft zu sprechen und einen Bericht zu verfassen, durchaus beunruhigt.“ [zum Originalartikel]
Riccardo Campa – Toward a transhumanist politics (re:public)
„The central transhumanist idea of self-directed evolution can be coupled with different political, philosophical and religious opinions. Accordingly, we have observed individuals and groups joining the movement from very different persuasions. On one hand such diversity may be an asset in terms of ideas and stimuli, but on the other hand it may involve a practical paralysis, especially when members give priority to their existing affiliations over their belonging to organized transhumanism.“ [read original article]
Scientists Worry Machines May Outsmart Man (By JOHN MARKOFF, published: July 25, 2009, New York Times)
„A robot that can open doors and find electrical outlets to recharge itself. Computer viruses that no one can stop. Predator drones, which, though still controlled remotely by humans, come close to a machine that can kill autonomously.
Impressed and alarmed by advances in artificial intelligence, a group of computer scientists is debating whether there should be limits on research that might lead to loss of human control over computer-based systems that carry a growing share of society’s workload, from waging war to chatting with customers on the phone.“ [read original article]
On the Importance of Being a Cyborg Feminist (written By: Kyle Munkittrick, h+ magazin, July 21, 2009)
„Transhumanism’s relationship with postmodern philosophy and critical theory is a strange one. For example, Nick Bostrom’s influential “A History of Transhumanist Thought” spans centuries, covering the gamut from Utnapishtim to the President’s Council on Bioethics, but makes little mention of those who radically challenge the core Enlightenment narrative upon which he builds his history. Figures like Nietzsche, Marx, and Donna Haraway do all receive a nod in Bostrom’s essay, including Haraway’s cyberfeminist motto, “I’d rather be a cyborg than a goddess,” but their ideas go unanalyzed. Of course, the context for these thinkers is often ignored and their works simply mined for epigraphs and potent, argument-punctuating lines such as Haraway’s. Make no mistake: Bostrom’s essay (indeed, his entire corpus of work) is essential reading for any serious transhumanist. But there are gaps in his history that are reflective of a larger dismissal of certain philosophers by transhumanist intellectuals. Among those neglected, I would list Jean Baudrillard, Michel Foucault, Judith Butler, Donna Haraway, Bruno Latour, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, and Jurgan Habermas. Clearly there is insufficient time and space to even begin to discuss all of these figures properly, so I would like to draw your attention to just one in particular, Donna Haraway, and her work with cyberfeminism.“ [read original article]
Singing the Singularity
Mike Treder (posted on IEET, Jul 16, 2009)
„Like many a useful concept, the Technological Singularity has become over-invested with emotion, ideological leanings, and tangential agendas. Can its value be recovered?
On October 3, 2009, the fourth annual Singularity Summit will convene, this time in New York City. Among the speakers featured in the two-day event are IEET fellows Ben Goertzel and Aubrey de Grey, along with Ray Kurzweil, Anders Sandberg, Robin Hanson, Eliezer Yudkowsky, Greg Benford, and many others.
So what’s it all about?“ [read original article]
DNA Not The Same In Every Cell Of Body: Major Genetic Differences Between Blood And Tissue Cells Revealed
ScienceDaily (July 16, 2009) — „Research by a group of Montreal scientists calls into question one of the most basic assumptions of human genetics: that when it comes to DNA, every cell in the body is essentially identical to every other cell. Their results appear in the July issue of the journal Human Mutation. This discovery may undercut the rationale behind numerous large-scale genetic studies conducted over the last 15 years, studies which were supposed to isolate the causes of scores of human diseases.“ [read original article]
The Next Hacking Frontier: Your Brain? (By Hadley Leggett, Wired, July 9, 2009)
„Hackers who commandeer your computer are bad enough. Now scientists worry that someday, they’ll try to take over your brain.
In the past year, researchers have developed technology that makes it possible to use thoughts to operate a computer, maneuver a wheelchair or even use Twitter — all without lifting a finger. But as neural devices become more complicated — and go wireless — some scientists say the risks of “brain hacking” should be taken seriously.
“Neural devices are innovating at an extremely rapid rate and hold tremendous promise for the future,” said computer security expert Tadayoshi Kohno of the University of Washington. “But if we don’t start paying attention to security, we’re worried that we might find ourselves in five or 10 years saying we’ve made a big mistake.”“ [read original article]
Stephen Hawking: “Humans Have Entered a New Stage of Evolution”
„Although It has taken homo sapiens several million years to evolve from the apes, the useful information in our DNA, has probably changed by only a few million bits. So the rate of biological evolution in humans, Stephen Hawking points out in his Life in the Universe lecture, is about a bit a year. „ [read original article]
Transhumanist Salvation or Judgment Day? (By Lou Cabron, June 30th, 2009, 10 Zen Monkeys)
„We’re starting to brush up against real robots, real nanotech, and maybe even the first real artificial intelligence. But will emerging technologies destroy humankind — or will humankind be saved by an emerging transhumanism?“ [read original article]
Angst vor dem Neuro-Hacking (Jörg Auf dem Hövel, Telepolis, 07.07.2009)
“Wie sicher sind neuronale Implantate gegen unautorisierte Fremdzugriffe?
Elektronische Hirnimplantate werden immer häufiger in Forschung und Medizin eingesetzt. Bislang ist der Datenschutz dieser Geräte kaum beleuchtet worden. Wie ist die Zugangskontrolle zu den Geräten organisiert? Viele der Implantate sind durch eine drahtlose Verbindung steuerbar, in den wenigsten ist eine Authentifizierungssystem integriert, das nur autorisierten Personen Zugang zu den Stimulatoren im Gehirn erlaubt.” [zum Originalartikel]
Langes Leben mit und ohne Diät
Matthias Gräbner (Telepolis, 09.07.2009)
“In den Spamordnern wird uns bald ein neuer Begriff begegnen: Rapamycin, haben Forscher gezeigt, verlängert das Leben signifikant – und zwar auch bei Säugetieren
50 Milligramm längeres Leben sind derzeit für 32 Euro zu haben. 99-prozentig reines Rapamycin, leicht zu finden, da sogar per Google-Textanzeige beworben vom Hersteller, der Firma LC Laboratories in Woburn, MA – dass die Substanz in der Lage ist, das Leben zumindest von Mäusen signifikant zu verlängern, haben die Spammer seit dieser Woche schriftlich.” [zum Originalartikel]
Doch kein Depressions-Gen
Stephan Schleim (Telepolis, 11.07.2009)
“Eine neue Untersuchung entkräftet die Belege für eine genetische Grundlage der Depression
Depressive Erkrankungen sind für die Betroffenen und die Gesellschaft eine große Belastung. Daher wundert es kaum, dass weltweit mit großem Eifer nach ihren körperlichen Ursachen gesucht wird. Ein Zusammenhang mit dem Botenstoff Serotonin schien durch neuere genetische Untersuchungen untermauert worden zu sein. Eine neue Meta-Analyse widerspricht den früheren Funden jedoch vehement. Damit hat das genetische Programm zur Erforschung der Depression und anderer psychischer Erkrankungen einen herben Rückschlag erlitten. Im Gegensatz zu den Genen gelten schwere Lebensereignisse nach wie vor als großer Risikofaktor für Depressionen. Es stellt sich die Frage, ob die Forschungsgelder bei der Suche nach ihren körperlichen Ursachen überhaupt gut angelegt sind.” [zum Originalartikel]
First Drug Shown to Extend Life Span in Mammals
Rapamycin, an immunosuppressant, enables elderly mice to live longer.
By Jocelyn Rice (TechnologyReview, Wednesday, July 08, 2009)
“A drug derived from bacteria in the soil on Easter Island can substantially extend the life span of mice, according to a study published online today in Nature. The drug, called rapamycin, is the first pharmacological agent shown to enhance longevity in a mammal, and it works when administered beginning late in life. Prior to this research, the only ways to increase rodents’ life span were via genetic engineering or caloric restriction–a nutritionally complete but very low-calorie diet.” [read original article]
One step closer to an artificial nerve cell, July 6th, 2009
(PhysOrg.com) – “Scientists at Karolinska Institutet and Linköping University (Sweden) are well on the way to creating the first artificial nerve cell that can communicate specifically with nerve cells in the body using neurotransmitters. The technology has been published in an article in Nature Materials.” [read original article]
The AI Report
The Past, Present and Future of artificial Intelligence
„Can machines think? In 1950, Alan Turing, considered by some to be the father of modern computing, published a paper in which he proposed that, “If, during text-based conversation, a machine is indistinguishable from a human, then it could be said to be ‘thinking’ and, therefore, could be attributed with intelligence.” He predicted that a computer would pass this “Turing Test” by the end of the century. That hasn’t happened–yet. But the question continues to provoke and inspire. AI might be just around the corner, or it might be centuries away. Edited By Courtney Boyd Myers“ [read original article]
Obama Plans to Replace Bush’s Bioethics Panel
By NICHOLAS WADE, New York Times, Published: June 17, 2009
„Members of the President’s Council on Bioethics were told by the White House last week that their services were no longer needed and were asked to cancel a planned meeting, a council staff member said Wednesday.
The council was disbanded because it was designed by the Bush administration to be “a philosophically leaning advisory group” that favored discussion over developing a shared consensus, said Reid Cherlin, a White House press officer.
President Obama will appoint a new bioethics commission, one with a new mandate and that “offers practical policy options,” Mr. Cherlin said.“ [read original article]
Plan to teach military robots the rules of war (NewScientist, 18.06.2009, Tom Simonite)
„Technology has always distanced the soldiers who use weapons from the people who get hit. But robotics engineer Ron Arkin at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, is working to imagine wars in which weapons make their own decisions about wielding lethal force.
He is particularly interested in how such machines might be programmed to act ethically, obeying the rules of engagement.
Arkin has developed an “ethical governor”, which aims to ensure that robot attack aircraft behave ethically in combat, and is demonstrating the system in simulations based on recent campaigns by US troops, using real maps from the Middle East.“ [read original article]
„Transhumanismus ist eine Denkrichtung und Bewegung, welche (wie der Humanismus im Mittelalter) der selbstbestimmten (Weiter)Entwicklung des Menschen grundsätzlich positiv gegenübersteht. Dabei werden insbesondere auch wissenschaftliche und technische Mittel erwogen.“ [zur webseite]
Reading the Surface of the Brain (Emily Singer, Technology Review 03.06.2009)
A startup aims to develop a minimally invasive neural prosthesis for disabled patients.
„A technology currently used to monitor epilepsy is being adapted into a neural interface for people who are paralyzed or have motor impairments from neurodegenerative disease. Neurolutions, a startup based in St. Louis, is developing a small, implanted device that translates signals recorded from the surface of the brain into computer commands.“ [read original article]
ENGINEERING BIOLOGY – A Talk with Drew Endy (Edge)
„The only thing that hasn’t been engineered are the living things, ourselves. Again, what’s the consequence of doing that at scale? Biotechnology is 30 years old; it’s a young adult. Most of the work is still to come, but how do we actually do it? Let’s not talk about it, let’s actually go do it, and then let’s deal with the consequences in terms of how this is going to change ourselves, how the biosecurity framework needs to recognize that it’s not going to be nation-state driven work necessarily, how an ownership sharing and innovation framework needs to be developed that moves beyond patent-based intellectual property and recognizes that the information defining the genetic material’s going to be more important than the stuff itself and so you might transition away from patents to copyright and so on and so forth.“ [read original article]
Immortality 2.0: a silicon valley insider looks at California’s Transhumanist movement
By Gelles, David, Publication: The Futurist, Date: Thursday, January 1 2009
„One afternoon in late 2007, a Yahoo executive named Salim Ismail stepped up to a podium at company headquarters to talk about what some call “the world’s most dangerous idea.” An intense man from India, Ismail faced a conference room packed with computer whizzes from the likes of Google, Apple, and Intel and launched into a tirade about the far frontiers of digital technology and the big battle that lay ahead.
“The current system is flawed,” he said, pacing the stage. He went on to talk about routers and interrupt systems, hardly exotic material to his audience. But even within this techy sanctum, his message was a bold one. The flawed system that Ismail lamented was not a computer network, it was the human brain. “We need to design a better one,” he said.“ [read original article]
Holding back the years (Tom Templeton, The Observer, Sunday 16 September 2007)
„Ageing is a disease that can be cured. This is the radical claim that has made biomedical theorist Aubrey de Grey a popular hero of gerontology – and a maverick among the science community. Tom Templeton meets the man who wants us to live for 1,000 years“ [read original article]
Patients who are frozen in time (Wendy M Grossman, The Guardian, Thursday 14 February 2008)
„Cryonics – freezing the dead with the hope of reviving them – has always been a long shot. But, says Wendy M Grossman, advances mean it could be coming a little closer“. [read original article]
If I Can’t Dance, I Don’t Want to Be Part of Your Revolution!
Athena Andreadis (Sentient Development)
„Those who know my outermost layer would consider me a science geek. I’m a proponent of genetic engineering, an advocate of space exploration, a reader and writer of science fiction. However, I found myself unable to warm to either transhumanism or its literary sidekick, cyberpunk. I ascribed this to the decrease of flexibility that comes with middle age and resumed reading Le Guin’s latest story cycle. […]
And I finally realized why I balk at cyberpunk and transhumanism like an unruly horse. Both are deeply anhedonic, hostile to physicality and the pleasures of the body, from enjoying wine to playing in an orchestra. I wondered why it had taken me so long to figure this out. After all, many transhumanists use the repulsive (and misleading) term “meat cage” to describe the human body, which they deem a stumbling block, an obstacle in the way of the mind.“ [read original article]
Harnessing science to create the ultimate warrior
NewScientist, 20 May 2009 by Linda Geddes
„BATALLIONS of super-soldiers could be selected for specific duties on the basis of their genetic make-up and then constantly monitored for signs of weakness. So says a report by the US National Academies of Science (NAS).
If a soldier is struggling, a digital “buddy” might step in and warn them about nearby threats, or advise comrades to zap them with an electromagnet to increase their alertness. If the whole unit is falling apart, biosensors could warn central commanders to send in a replacement team.“ [read original article]
« Previous Page — « Previous entries « Previous Page · Next Page » Next entries » — Next Page »